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“Conversion Therapy” and the Culture Wars

The religious manipulation of science

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Christopher M. Babits (Photo courtesy Christopher M. Babits)

The culture wars have come roaring back to life. For many, including historian Andrew Hartmann, author of A War for the Soul of America, the utility of the term “culture wars” had exhausted itself by the mid-2010s. One election can change everything, though, including how we examine the recent past.

I read Hartmann’s excellent book after the 2016 election. Things have changed in President Donald Trump’s America — the historical and contemporary importance of the culture wars have returned to prominence. This is especially the case for the topic of my dissertation — the history of “conversion therapy” from the 1920s to today. Indeed, if anything, the battle over these controversial (and many say, extraordinarily dangerous) therapeutic and counseling practices remains one of the most contentious in the nation.

Over the past thirty years, conversion therapy’s position in the culture wars has centered on the question of what constitutes the scientific study of sexuality. In the early 1990s, two studies changed the way many Americans thought about the science of homosexuality. Simon LeVay’s research on hypothalamic structure launched a new wave of biological research on male sexuality. LeVay found that parts of the hypothalamus, the section of the brain responsible for attachment behavior, were nearly twice as large in the heterosexual men than the homosexual men in his sample.

In 1993, a team at the National Institutes of Health led by Dean Hamer discovered a stronger linkage between male homosexuality and biology. After conducting a family pedigree study on 114 families of gay men, Hamer theorized that male homosexuality might be a sex-linked trait. His study of forty pairs of homosexual brothers found a linkage on Xq28, a region on the “long arm” of the chromosome the men inherited from their mothers.

Over the next few decades, these two studies, along with subsequent ones, transformed Americans’ understandings of homosexuality. In short, genetics research became a critical flashpoint for both sides in the culture wars as many gay and lesbian rights activists tried to convince the public that they were “born this way.”

Conversion therapists, including neo-Freudian psychoanalysts, reparative therapists, and ex-gay ministers, challenged these studies. After LeVay’s research was published, Focus on the Family claimed that “homosexual activists” were using “poor science to ‘prove’ that their sexual preference is biological destiny.” Hamer’s study, which could be seen as corroborating evidence for LeVay’s, was an especially serious threat to the psychosexual theories that supported conversion therapy.

Responding to Hamer’s study two weeks after its publication, R. Albert Mohler, the president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, accused Hamer and his team of conducting “ideologically-driven science.” Although scientists had “replaced the black-robed clergy as the nation’s high priests,” Mohler wrote, Americans must recognize that “science is not value-neutral in all respects, and is often forced into the service of a political, commercial, or ideological agenda.” The issue with this, however, is that conversion therapists’ own ideologies, namely their religious beliefs and conservative family values worldview, inform their therapeutic and counseling practices.

Instead of recognizing this (at least in public), some religious and social conservatives, like the founders of the National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH), which included Joseph Nicolosi, Charles Socarides, and Benjamin Kaufman, placed blame elsewhere. In 1991, Joseph Nicolosi wrote how the “combined effects of the sexual revolution and ‘rights’ movements — civil rights, minority rights, feminist rights — have resulted in an intimidating effect on psychology,” a climate that, in his estimation, halted psychiatric studies on homosexuality.

Kaufman agreed. He believed that a politically charged environment stifled the scientific study of same-sex desires. Kaufman once wrote that a form of circular logic had taken root in professional medical organizations, like the American Psychiatric Association, that issued warnings about the dangers of reparative and conversion therapy. He thought that these statements indicated political cooperation with gay rights groups, which activists then used as proof that the intersecting worlds of medicine and science were on their side.

Although more than twenty-five years old at this point, the battle is still being waged — in legislatures and courts and on social media. California has taken the lead in efforts to ban conversion therapy, recently debating a bill that calls these practices consumer fraud. Conversion therapists, for their part, have evolved in their efforts to win the culture wars. They are currently arguing that these bans violate the “religious liberty” of both themselves and their patients and that “talk therapy” is a form of speech protected by the First Amendment.

The clash between LGBTQ+ rights groups and religious conservatives remains alive and well. If the history of conversion therapy in the culture wars offers any lessons, though, it’s this: the struggle will continue, as there’s no clear end in sight.

Christopher M. Babits was recently named a 2018 LGBTQ Research Fellow at the ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives at the University of Southern California.

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LGBTQ+ people to Feds: Stop Proud Boys & other terrorist groups!

Federal law enforcement agencies have the power to intervene when local police can’t or won’t do their jobs

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Members of the Proud Boys flash “white power” hand signs Monday while disrupting a Pride event in South Bend. Image captured from a tweet by the Indiana Mutual Aid Coalition asking the public to identify the men.

By James Finn | DETROIT – LGBTQ Pride month in the U.S. this year was marred by violence, threats of violence, and organized attacks by white nationalist groups like the Patriot Front and the Proud Boys.

The Proud Boys have particularly targeted family Pride events, succeeding in having several postponed or cancelled through acts of disruption designed to sow fear and even terror.

Law enforcement agencies have done little to defend LGBTQ people trying to come together in peace. In one egregious incident, sheriff’s deputies bantered and fist bumped members of the racist group as they terrorized small children.

We LGBTQ people must have the right to peaceably assemble without self-proclaimed “white nationalists” swarming in screaming obscenities and shutting our events down.

Local law enforcement often prove unwilling to defend LGBTQ people and familes. If police and sheriff’s deputies won’t keep the peace, then it’s time for federal agencies to step in and crack down.

Here are just a few accounts of Proud Boys terrorism this Pride season:

Proud Boys attack gay bar in California, patrons forced to defend themselves while police watch

“Fuck you, pedophile motherfuckers!” shouted the masked man as patrons of the Mojo Lounge bar and restaurant in Woodland, California pepper sprayed him to stop him and other members of the Proud Boys from forcing their way inside.

“Fuck you, pedophile motherfuckers!” shouted the masked man as patrons of the Mojo Lounge pepper sprayed him to stop him and other members of the Proud Boys from forcing their way inside.

Mojo patrons, who had come to see an “all ages drag show” to celebrate Pride month, had to defend themselves last week because (as you can see for yourself in the video below) members of the Woodland Police Department weren’t helping. Even though police had turned out in force to respond to threats of violence, and even though the Proud Boys contingent had gathered across the street chanting obscenities and homophobic/transphobic slurs, the cops stood back and away from the door as Proud Boys protestors tried to force their way inside.

Terrified patrons had to defend themselves, and the day’s drag show and other celebrations were cancelled.

When peaceful citizens have to resort to pepper spray because the police won’t defend them from masked thugs, then as the saying goes, “Houston, we have a problem.”

Library Pride event disrupted then canceled after Proud Boys rampage for 40 minutes

Also last week, according to the Los Angeles Blade, members of the Proud Boys terrorized library staff and children at a Rainbow Story Hour at South Bend, Indiana’s Tutt Library. According to the Indiana Mutual Aid Coalition, which tweeted video, Proud Boys members flashed white supremacist hand signals and “harassed the presenter, event organizer, staff, and library patrons until police were called.”

Those library patrons were parents who brought their small children to the library to celebrate Pride in peace — by hearing stories about diversity, acceptance, and love.

“We’re stopping them from introducing shit to kids,” one of the Proud members told a police officer, who instead of arresting and jailing the Proud Boys for disrupting the event, or at least forcing them out of the library, had a calm discussion with them.

Library staff then canceled the reading out of safety concerns, saying they may reschedule it “in a few months.”

Proud Boy members protesting a Pride Event at a Nevada library, minutes before one of the men stalked toward the event with a gun in his hands, causing children and parents to flee. Screenshots/KRNV

Children flee Nevada Pride event when Proud Boy approaches with a gun

Also last week, members of the Proud Boys terrorized LGBTQ families at a library in Sparks, Nevada, a small town near Reno. According to the LA Blade, a group of Proud Boys disrupted a drag queen story hour, chanting obscenities and homophobic/transphobic slurs while screaming that the parents who brought their children to Pride are “groomers” and “molesters.”

* More importantly, federal law enforcement agencies have the power to intervene when local police can’t or won’t do their jobs. *

Reno police had been monitoring, but when protesters began to drift away, officers left the scene. Then one of the Proud Boys pulled out a gun and approached the crowd of parents and children. Some witnesses report that the masked man screamed and waved his gun, others that he “merely” held it as he approached a group of small children and parents. Witnesses say the families fled into the library, some of the children screaming and crying.

The police have not explained why they left the scene while masked members of the white supremacist group were still protesting. Nor have police issued an apology to LGBTQ people for failing to protect them from a group known for instigating violence. The police have not pledged to do better in the future.

A witness who took these photos says this deputy and others escorted these masked members of the Cape Fear Proud Boys up to the door of a room in a North Carolina library, allowing them to scream through the door at parents and children until a Pride reading ended.

Sheriff’s deputies in North Carolina actively help Proud Boys terrify families with toddlers

According to patrons at a Pride story event in the Pine Valley branch of the New Hanover, NC library system, a group of 15 masked Proud Boys terrorized them on June 21 with the active assistance of sheriff’s deputies. Families with children as young as 17 months old were forced to flee through a side door, and the library was unable to be used for its ordinary purpose for as long as 90 minutes.

Throughout the incident, a group of deputies failed to stop the white supremacists from screaming obscenities and slurs. Reportedly, the deputies engaged in light-hearted banter with the masked Proud Boys and even fist bumped them in a show of solidarity.

It’s time for the U.S. to join Canada and New Zealand in treating the Proud Boys as a terrorist group

The New Zealand government declared the Proud Boys a terrorist organization last week, citing their role in the Jan. 6 Capitol riots, racist ideology, hyper-nationalism, and violent messaging.

The New Zealand government say the group’s activities meet definitions of terroristic acts “carried out for the purpose of advancing an ideological, political, or religious cause,” intended to “intimidate a population” or “cause the death of, or serious bodily injury to, one or more persons.”

Canada added the Proud Boys to its list of domestic terror groups back in March, after which point one Canadian branch disbanded for fear of legal consequences.

The U.S. doesn’t classify domestic groups as terror groups the same way NZ and Canada do, but our federal government has mechanisms for putting domestic groups on watch lists and turning up the heat.

More importantly, federal law enforcement agencies have the power to intervene when local police can’t or won’t do their jobs.

I’m thinking about that other group of masked terrorists who haunt American history, the ones who wore white and whose masks ended in pointy tips. When local law enforcement colluded with the KKK or failed to take strong enough steps against them, the FBI often took point instead.

The Proud Boys aren’t lynching people, and I’m not trying to suggest victims of their violent threats have suffered the way Black people suffered under KKK terror, but how about we put a stop to things before they get that far?

Violent threats against Pride events this year have shocked LGBTQ families and communities. Nobody suspected going to Pride would ever be about fear, but that’s what’s happening, a change driven primarily by groups like the Patriot Front and the Proud Boys, racist organizations that hate LGBTQ people as much they hate Black people, immigrants, and Jews.

They’re running amok, and local law enforcement is all too frequently encouraging them or treating them in a “neutral” manner that lets them get away with terrorizing minorities.

So, how about we stop being neutral?

How about we start treating terrorists like terrorists? And how about if police departments and sheriff’s offices won’t do the job, the feds step in and bring the hammer down?

I don’t know about you, but I don’t want to live in country where masked racists have free reign to shut down Pride events by screaming obscenities at little children.

Our federal government is run by Democrats right now. If they won’t help LGBTQ people, will anyone? Ever?

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James Finn is a columnist for the LA Blade, a former Air Force intelligence analyst, an alumnus of Queer Nation and Act Up NY, and an “agented” but unpublished novelist. Send questions, comments, and story ideas to [email protected]

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The preceding article was previously published by Prism & Pen– Amplifying LGBTQ voices through the art of storytelling and is republished by permission.

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Florida school district to force teachers to Out LGBTQ+ students

Florida’s ‘Don’t Say Gay’ is doing EXACTLY what LGBTQ advocates warned it would do even though formal written LGBTQ policies not yet released

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Orange County Public Schools logo, public domain image. Photo of bullied teen girl licensed from Adobe Stock.

By James Finn | ORLANDO – The 9th largest school district in the U.S. just advised its 25,000 teachers and staff that they must inform parents if a student “comes out” to them.

That’s just for starters. Keep reading, because Don’t Say Gay exploded this week in Orange County, Florida, home of Orlando and a dense population that includes 205,000 public school students.

LGBTQ advocates and teachers in Florida are shouting, “We told you so!” as Orange County Public Schools announces policies to enforce Governor Ron DeSantis’s Don’t Say Gay law, formally known as the Parental Rights in Education Act. Advocates have warned for months that the law’s vague wording and provisions to allow parents to sue school districts would prompt draconian anti-LGBTQ regulations. That’s exactly what’s happening in Orange County today.

* Outing LGBTQ teens to unsupportive parents isn’t just bad policy. It’s a moral outrage, an affront to human decency. *

ABC affiliate WFTV reported on Monday that Orange County Public Schools held an administrators-only seminar last week to advise principals on what behaviors would and would not be permissible under the new law. They also report that representatives of the Florida Classroom Teachers Association (CTA) have informed them of new policies they’ve learned about through other channels.

Here’s the lowdown so far on Orange County schools and new LGBTQ polices:

  1. Teachers must report to parents if a student ‘comes out’ to them.
  2. Teachers must use pronouns assigned at birth, regardless of what the parents allow, meaning teachers must misgender trans students in class.
  3. Teachers must remove stickers denoting a particular classroom is a “safe space” for LGBTQ students and others.
  4. Teachers cannot wear rainbows on their clothing, “including lanyards distributed by the district last year.”
  5. Elementary-level teachers are discouraged from putting pictures of their same-sex spouse on their desk or talking about them to students. Teachers are not being discouraged from putting pictures of opposite-sex spouses on their desks.

Teachers are alarmed and speaking out

Several LGBTQ teachers in Florida’s Miami/Dade and Orange counties have reached out to me privately saying they’ve quit their jobs or they’re planning to soon. The Washington Post and NBC News reported recently that LGBTQ teachers in Florida are leaving the profession in significant numbers. Many, however, are staying, determined to fight for justice and equality, and to provide a safe haven for LGBTQ kids.

CTA President-Elect Clinton McCracken is on the record urging Orange County Public Schools to rethink policies: “It will be alarming if our district chooses to interpret this law in the most extreme way. We want them to protect student privacy. We want them to make sure that they’re creating and helping to create safe classrooms. We believe our school board supports that.”

The consequences of outing are STAGGERING.

According to the Trevor Project, LGBTQ students are already at a high risk for anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. These risks multiply bigtime if a student is outed to unsupportive parents.

Also, outing teens to unsupportive parents dramatically increases their risk of homelessness. The Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law has found that 45 percent of homeless youth in the U.S. identify as LGBTQ, a hugely disproportionate number. They further found that 43 percent of LGBTQ youth were kicked out of the home by unsupportive parents.

Outing LGBTQ teens to unsupportive parents isn’t just bad policy. It’s a moral outrage, an affront to human decency.

Mandatory misgendering of trans students will cause serious harm

I don’t know if anyone at the district level thought the misgendering policy through, but the implications, as with outing, are staggering. Many trans students attend schools where their peers have no idea they’re trans, often because they transferred into the district fully presenting as their gender. Usual school privacy practice around the nation requires teachers not to out these students, regardless of what’s on their birth certificate.

I can’t imagine the justification for suddenly forcing teachers to violate student privacy instead of protect it. I can, however, imagine the anguish that will result. And the jeers. And the bullying. And the tragic consequences.

I can also imagine the anguish of newly transitioning students who started their summer vacations thinking of school as a safe, supportive space where they were free to be themselves, only to return in the fall to a school where their teachers must misgender them.

Forbidding rainbows and safe-space stickers sends a cruel, bullying message

Little rainbow flags and stickers that let LGBTQ kids know they are safe and truly welcome do a great deal of good and no harm. They say, “We value you for who you are. You can come here to this space, and know you will find an adult you can trust. You can report bullying here and be assured the adult you’re reporting it to accepts and values LGBTQ people.”

Forcing teachers to remove those symbols doesn’t just remove the safe space, it sends a toxic message to the entire student body: “LGBTQ people and ideas are too controversial to be open about in school. Rainbow flags are not positive symbols of diversity, love and, acceptance. They’re so toxic, and some people hate what they stand for so much, that they have no place in school.”

I don’t care if you’re gay, straight, bi, cis, trans, or nonbinary, that message spreads intolerance and even hatred.

Discouraging same-sex married teachers from being open about their families also spreads intolerance and hatred

We Americans live in a pluralistic society where people of all races, ethnic origins, and religions live and work together. An overwhelming majority of people in the U.S. have no problem with same-sex marriage, and while a loud minority have a serious problem with it, it’s legal and common and not going anywhere.

Telling gay and bisexual teachers not to talk about their families or display photos of their families in circumstances where straight teachers ordinarily do so sends a terrible message to school employees and students. “Something is wrong with you and your family, so wrong that students must not see or hear anything about your family.”

That message is not pluralistic, it’s not American, and it’s certainly not healthy. It demonizes LGBTQ people as it promotes shaming and discrimination. Utterly unacceptable.

None of this is set in stone yet. Raise your voice!

According to WFTV, that district-wide meeting with administrators last week did not include formal written LGBTQ policies, which have not yet been released. There’s still time to tell Orange County Public Schools policy makers that their proposals will do great harm, that their leaked policies are toxic and morally outrageous.

Outing LGBTQ kids to unsupportive parents? What are they THINKING? Reach out to Orange County Public Schools today, right now, and demand they do do better.

You can contact the district office here, and find contact information for school board members here.

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James Finn is a columnist for the LA Blade, a former Air Force intelligence analyst, an alumnus of Queer Nation and Act Up NY, and an “agented” but unpublished novelist. Send questions, comments, and story ideas to [email protected]

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The preceding article was previously published by Prism & Pen– Amplifying LGBTQ voices through the art of storytelling and is republished by permission.

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Major Pride events disrupted as Extremists go after small children

In Nevada, masked Proud Boys threatened a group of small children and their parents observing Pride, causing the families to flee in panic

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Proud Boy members protesting a Pride Event at a Nevada library, minutes before one of the men stalked toward the event with a gun in his hands, causing children and parents to flee. Screenshots/KRNV

By James Finn | DETROIT – Chaos broke out over the weekend in New York City and San Francisco as participants at the two largest, oldest U.S. Pride parades panicked over reported gunfire. In Nevada, masked Proud Boys threatened a group of small children and their parents observing Pride, causing the families to flee in panic.

According to the Washington Post, “loud noises” on Sunday sent Pride crowds in New York’s Washington Square Park “fleeing and nearly caused a stampede.”

Some witnesses, who reported minor injuries requiring medical attention, say “nearly” misses the mark. The noises were later determined to be fireworks, according to parade organizers, who suggest ongoing threats of violence had Pride attendees on edge.

Panic over reported gunshots, and a gun, at weekend Pride events

Chaos broke out over the weekend in New York City and San Francisco as participants at the two largest, oldest U.S. Pride parades panicked over reported gunfire. In Nevada, masked Proud Boys threatened a group of small children and their parents observing Pride, causing the families to flee in panic.

According to the Washington Post, “loud noises” on Sunday sent Pride crowds in New York’s Washington Square Park “fleeing and nearly caused a stampede.”

Some witnesses, who reported minor injuries requiring medical attention, say “nearly” misses the mark. The noises were later determined to be fireworks, according to parade organizers, who suggest ongoing threats of violence had Pride attendees on edge.

Thousands flee San Francisco Pride

On Saturday, panic broke out at San Francisco Pride, as reported by Kylie Robison of Insider, who was there. “I was at pride, she tweeted, “and people started screaming, running, saying there was shots fired. I started running with the crowd but its just wild to live in a country where we’re all prepared to run or die like that.”

According to NBC News, San Francisco Pride ended early after somebody started spraying mace near the San Francisco Civic Center: “The incident caused a panic and in the hour that followed there were reports of street brawls as people left the event.”

Other reports suggest people stampeded over sounds of gunfire. A security guard told NBC that “two stampedes broke out with crowds running for the exits amid rumors of a gun.”

Details are unclear, but it appears no shots were fired. Reports of mace are conflicting and unconfirmed, but the fear and panic were very real.

“I was at the SF pride event with my son,” one witness comments. “I can only describe it as World War Z type of panic. At first a group of a few hundred sprinters dodged through the area near the exit. The second wave was thousands of people, many crying, most in fear running to the exits.”

Children flee Nevada Pride event when Proud Boy approaches with a gun

So far as reporters are able to confirm, no actual guns were involved in the San Francisco and NYC Pride stampedes, but on Sunday, Proud Boys protesters menaced a Pride event at the Sparks Library in Reno, Nevada. Multiple news sources, including the LA Blade, report that a group of Proud Boys disrupted a drag queen story hour, chanting obscenities and screaming that parents who brought their children to Pride are “groomers” and “molesters.”

Reno police had been monitoring, but when protesters began to drift away, officers reportedly left the scene. Then one of the Proud Boys pulled out a gun and approached the crowd of parents and children. Details are conflicting, some witnesses reporting that the masked man screamed and waved his gun, others that he just held it in his hands as he approached the children.

Witnesses all agree that the families fled into the library, many of the children screaming and crying.

LGBTQ people face rising tides of violence and extremism

Pride observers in NYC and San Francisco may have over-reacted, but not without cause. Most of them were probably aware of a mass shooting early Saturday in Oslo, Norway that claimed the lives of two people and seriously injured ten more outside a popular gay club. Police charged a 42-year-old man with murder, and Oslo’s Pride parade, scheduled for later in the day, was canceled.

Attendees were likely also aware that several U.S. Pride events this year have been menaced by Christian nationalist groups like the Patriot Front, 31 of whom were arrested — with body armor, riot gear, and at least one smoke grenade — on their way to terrorize Pride in Idaho. Groups of masked Proud Boys have terrorized children at several library events this month, including at the San Lorenzo Library in California and at a North Carolina library near Wilmington. Sherriff’s deputies in the latter case tacitly encouraged the Proud Boys, fist bumping them and engaging in casual banter instead of stopping them from screaming at small children.

God, guns, and glory, shout Christian nationalist extremists

Social media is a frightening place to be LGBTQ these days, with conservative Christian leaders openly calling for transgender and gay people to be executed. Their posts and media accounts, like this Steadfast Baptist Church account on Twitter and this one on Facebook, are often left standing by managers at Facebook and Twitter, who cite freedom of religious expression.

Steadfast pastors at several U.S. churches this year have called for LGBTQ people to be killed, and if their threats frighten us, can you blame us? Instead of being arrested and incarcerated or committed, these religious extremists continue to incite violence and call for their supporters to arm themselves.

Gods, guns, and glory is the conservative rallying cry today, which married to rising anti-LGBTQ extremism, makes violent threats sound all the more ominous.

Also ominously, just last week, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a New York State that makes it a crime to carry a concealed firearm without a license. The decision will mean that nearly anyone who wants to carry a gun in public will be able to.

New York Governor Kathy Hochul said, “This decision isn’t just reckless, it’s reprehensible.”

Maybe that’s what some of those stampeding people in Washington Square were thinking about when they thought they heard gunshots.

Americans of good will have to act together to take our country back

The pro-LGBTQ media organization GLAAD calls for Americans to resist the increasing arming of our society, to protest the recent Supreme Court decision that blocks sensible gun licensing and regulation.

GLAAD President Sarah Kate Ellis also calls out anti-LGBTQ laws and false propaganda messaging, calling on politicians and social media managers to reign in toxic rhetoric that equates LGBTQ people to sexualizing “groomers” who prey on children:

Ellis says, “Lawmakers and Governors like DeSantis and Abbott, along with their co-conspirators at Fox News, better pause today and recognize that their anti-LGBTQ rhetoric and the nearly 250 anti-LGBTQ bills introduced this year are responsible for this dangerous climate.”

She adds that “Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and social media platforms must also take responsibility and urgently stop fueling the hate and misinformation that inspire white supremacist groups like the Patriot Front.”

I join Ellis in calling for an end to the vilification of LGBTQ people for political gain. What we saw this weekend in New York City, San Francisco and Reno should be a wakeup call. Do we need another tragic anti-LGBTQ mass shooting like Pulse, or like JUST HAPPENED in Norway, before we confront the dangerous reality of the path we’re on?

What’s the solution? I don’t have all the answers, but I know we must turn out in massive numbers this November to elect an overwhelmingly Democratic Congress, which no matter what our political views, is the only way to stop the minority of extremists who now dominate the Republican Party, the only way to bring the increasingly reckless Supreme Court under control.

If we don’t act together now, mark my words, near-future articles won’t be about stampedes at Pride, they’ll be about massacres.

Breaking update: Pink News is reporting that a trans teenager is hospitalized with a fractured skull and brain abnormalities, and that two other people were hospitalized in a terrifying attack after Pride celebrations on Saturday in Dublin, Ireland. Five people in total were attacked at St. Stephen’s Green while celebrating Pride after the official event concluded.

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James Finn is a columnist for the LA Blade, a former Air Force intelligence analyst, an alumnus of Queer Nation and Act Up NY, and an “agented” but unpublished novelist. Send questions, comments, and story ideas to [email protected]

********************

The preceding article was previously published by Prism & Pen– Amplifying LGBTQ voices through the art of storytelling and is republished by permission.

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