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Report details conversion therapy impact on LGBTQ+ South Africans

Country’s lawmakers urged to ban discredited practice



(Image public domain)

PRETORIA, South Africa — So-called conversion therapy is something which is still widely practiced across South Africa, impacting the well-being of the LGBTQ+ community in the process.

Families, schools, religious sects and peer groups over the years have been used to try and convert those that identify as part of the LGBTQ+ community to conform to the heterosexual narrative which is promoted as “homogeneous.” Access-Chapter 2, a South African NGO, in a recent study found conversion therapy is proving to be more harmful towards the society and it could pose serious repercussions in the future if nothing is done to address it.

“The LGBTQIA+ community has historically been a site of erasure, silencing and marginalization in many of our communities. This erasure has been normalized over the history of civilization, particularly in the context of Africa, where most countries still criminalize same-sex desiring. Through this study we see a problematic trajectory regarding this erasure even in contemporary South African societies,” reads the study.

The study notes 50 percent respondents “have reported to have been forced to convert by their families, while 43 percent (of respondents) had a session with a religious representative or institution as intervention by parents, families, or communities.”

“Despite the visible efforts to call out the practices of conversion by LGBTQIA+ pressure groups, these practices are still prevalent. The impact is even more detrimental, with most of our participants directly having experienced discrimination, prejudice, homophobia, transphobia or stigma in the hands of their families, churches, psychosocial service providers, schools, and the rest of the community,” it reads.

A total of 303 respondents participated in an online survey, and the study’s findings were shared with a variety of LGBTQ+ civil society organizations and on social media platforms.

The respondents came from nine provinces: 149 from Gauteng, nine from Mpumalanga, 36 from Free State, 24 from North-West, two from Northern Cape, seven from KwaZulu-Natal, 42 from Eastern Cape, 28 from Western Cape and 14 from Limpopo. Seven respondents identified themselves as White, while five identified as Colored and 209 identified as Black African.

A total of 144 respondents identified as lesbian, while 91 described themselves as gay. Twenty-five respondents identified themselves as bisexual and 31 said they are heterosexual. 183 respondents described themselves as Christian, while 74 said they practice a traditional African religion. Forty respondents said they do not associate with any religion, while one said they are Hindu and one described themselves as Muslim.

“Parents are the main perpetrators of conversion practices and initiators of external sources to fix individuals whose sexual orientation does not align with heterosexuality,” notes the study. “Parents maintain that same-sex sexual and romantic desires is not inborn and therefore engage in efforts to change their child’s sexual orientation or gender identity. Some seek professional therapies or religious interventions for a child’s same-sex sexual orientation or non-heterosexual gender identity while other consider traditional remedies. The study raised distinct ethical concerns concerning appropriate consent because parents and authority figures would exert pressure over minors.”

“Despite parental reliance of religion to fix the non-normative sexual orientation and gender expressions, churches outside the request of the family continue to police gender expressions. Participants reported that they were constantly harassed because of the manner of dressing, expression of identity and attractions that did not align with their gender assigned at birth,” it adds. “They could not be open about their romantic partners and LGBTQIA+ friendships. Community members from the same religious organizations would report members who are seen with LGBTQIA+ individuals, and their religious and spiritual standing would instantly be questioned. Participants who pointed out that they had a particular spiritual gift be it singing in the worship team, praying for others or an usher was recalled from such positions as their lifestyles were deemed demonic.”

The study further notes many respondents experienced “engagement with professional psychological services that subjected them to conversion practices.”

“Those who were subjected to psychological services were forced by parents to attend. They reported that parents claimed that it was normal to experience a phase of confusion about sexual orientation and non-normative gender identity and that therapy could help. Participants also reported how therapist appeared to be under pressure to have them fixed as these services are costly. Those who attended therapeutic interventions were subjected to the confusion narrative and at one stage were desperate to be healed from it,” it says. “Families also sought help from traditional healers.”

The study’s respondents reported “they had to be immersed in rivers and dams to be cleansed while others were fed with potions that would enable the release of the demonic spirit.”

“The traditional practices would continue at home with frequent follow up consultations at traditional practitioners,” it says. “While participants were aware that the focus was to heal them from their abnormal sexual orientation, they were not always aware of what substances they were given. Participants were also subjected to violence such as beatings and slaps while undergoing healing processes with traditional healers. They reported that they were put under spells and were not fully aware of all things they were subjected to.”

“Participants, particularly lesbian-identifying individuals, also reported how they live in fear as they are continuously subjected to threats of rape and even killings. As a result, many Lesbian couples cannot embrace their true self and cannot openly and in a safe way express public affection. Participants mentioned the common practice and spades of LGBTQIA+ murders in South Africa and how it forces them to live a hidden lifestyle.”

The study, which is a notable breakthrough in the research for conceptualizing conversion therapy in the context of South Africa and also the first official evidence of the harmfulness of conversion practices across the country, further highlighted on the impact of the conversion therapies, recommendations and on how to avert the despicable acts.

“Participants in this study showed that there are various psychosocial effects on LGBTQIA+ people who were subjected to conversion practices. Social factors such as discrimination, prejudice, homophobia, transphobia and stigma can create hostile and stressful social environments for LGBTQIA+ people,” it notes. “It left individuals experiencing social rejection and feeling forced to hide their identity. In some instances, individuals also adopted unhealthy coping processes and their mental health negatively impacted. Some of the impacts of conversion practices on mental health include depression, social anxiety, substance abuse, thoughts and attempts of suicide, an altered body image as well as other mental health issues. Individuals also experienced shame, guilt, hopelessness, helplessness, increased self-hatred and social withdrawal. Conversion practices are also known too often lead to severe emotional damage.

Participants who experienced conversion while at school mentioned that learning was affected to the point that some dropped out of school. Others indicated risky behaviors such as unprotected sex to develop a sense of belonging while some indulged in excessive alcohol drinking. These experiences left participants vulnerable even in their young adult developments.”

The study also found those who undergo conversion therapy are at higher risk of depression and anxiety and are more likely to die by suicide.

“This study could not identify a single participant that could confirm that conversion therapy has been effective,” it reads.

The study further notes that despite the fact South Africa has “one of the most progressive Constitutions and LGBTQIA+-inclusive legislation in the world, the social reality depicts the complete opposite.”

“Religious, cultural, professional and social scripts still uphold, produce and perpetuate compulsory heteronormativity hence, conversion practices could pass as normal and acceptable in all domains,” it reads. “Conversion practices emanates directly from privileging heterosexuality as the norm and natural. All other forms of expression are deemed unacceptable, sinful and un-African. This is despite the Constitution that affirms and protects diverse sexual orientations, sex and gender expressions.”

“We therefore, call on legislation that would place an urgent ban on conversion practices in the South African context,” said Access-Chapter 2. “Professional institutions such as the medical and psychological fraternity should be educated about the damaging effects of conversion practices. This form of education should form part of in-service and pre-service training. All civil society organizations should be empowered to support individuals who have been subjected to conversion practices. Supported services for recipients of conversion practices should be widely published to create awareness of interventions, care and support.”

Daniel Itai is the Washington Blade’s Africa Correspondent.



Prominent Trans woman in Nigeria arrested, charged with defacing currency

Authorities say Idris Okuneye, known as Bobrisky, flaunted money



Bobrisky's arrest has sparked concern among Nigerian activists. (Photos courtesy of Bobrisky's Facebook page)

LAGOS, Nigeria — Nigeria’s Economic and Financial Crimes Commission’s decision to arrest a well-known Transgender woman over the practice of flaunting money has sparked questions among several human rights activists.

Idris Okuneye, who is known as Bobrisky, was first arrested last Wednesday.

Justice Abimbola Awogboro of the Lagos Federal High Court on April 5 charged her with four counts of mutilating N490,000 (roughly $375.)

The EFCC alleges Bobrinsky between last July and August flaunted N50,000 (roughly $36) during a social event and N400,000 ($306) at another gathering last month. Bobrinsky has been charged with violating section 21(1) of the Central Bank Act of 2007.

“The Lagos Zonal EFCC, on Friday, April 5, 2024, secured the conviction of Idris Okuneye, (Bobrisky), before Justice Abimbola Awogboro sitting at the Federal High Court, Ikoyi, Lagos over mutilation of the Naira notes,” reads the EFCC complaint that misgenders Bobrisky. “He was arraigned on Friday on a four-count charge bordering on mutilation of the Naira notes to the tune of N490,000.”

“Justice Awogboro, thereafter, ruled, that upon the admission of guilt by the defendant, and following the evidence tendered, the defendant is declared guilty as charged,” adds the statement.

The EFCC said after listening to both parties, Awogboro delayed his ruling and also ordered that Bobrisky remain in EFCC custody. Activist Felix Abayomi said the EFCC was simply using Bobrisky as a scapegoat due to the fact that she is a vulnerable member of the society.

“Discrimination in the name of implementing a pick and choose law! Why go after someone that is a vulnerable member of our society? Someone that is clearly dealing and coping with stigmatization of her lifestyle choices which is innate. Using her as a scapegoat is uncalled for,” said Abayomi. “How does spraying the Naira that is cultural to us as a people ever even become a financial crime? People who commit economic and financial crimes against us as a people and against our nation state are sitting comfortably in the hollows of our legislative chambers and power.”

Chidi Odinkalu, the former chair of the National Human Rights Commission, said the arrest was not about the mutilation of the Naira notes, but about Bobrisky’s gender identity.

“The EFCC should be ashamed of themselves,” said Odinkalu. “The power of arrest and prosecution is a public trust that should not be weaponized for the persecution of those whom they don’t like. It is either the EFCC is evidently idle or this is a clear abuse of power.” 

EFCC spokesperson Dele Oyewale said Odinkalu’s statements were reckless.

“The commission views such commentaries from Odinkalu as unbecoming of a former head of a major government agency,” said Oyewale. “Okuneye was arrested and arraigned by the commission on the basis of clear cases of abuse of the Naira to which he has pleaded guilty.”

“Odinkalu has a right to free speech as a Nigerian, but such a right should be exercised with decorum and responsibility,” added Oyewale. “The commission would not hesitate to take appropriate legal actions against such uncouth commentaries against its lawful mandate by anyone. Odinkalu is warned and advised to ventilate his rascally opinions more responsibly in future situations.” 

Bobrisky is one of the few individuals on the African continent who has publicly discussed their gender transition.

Ever since she started to publicly show her transition, several Nigerian political pundits have been calling for her arrest. There are no laws that specifically target Trans Nigerians, but the Same-Sex Marriage Act criminalizes same-sex marriages and prohibits the public display of same-sex relationships with up to 14 years in prison.

In states where Sharia law is practiced, those found engaging in same-sex sexual activities can be sentenced to death by stoning. Even those who identify as trans can receive 50 lashes or more.

Update: Awogboro on Friday sentenced Bobrisky to six months in prison without the option of paying a fine. Reports indicate authorities will send her to a men’s prison.

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Anti-Homosexuality law upheld by Ugandan Constitutional Court

President Yoweri Museveni last May signed the law, which contains a death penalty provision for “aggravated homosexuality”



The Ugandan Constitutional Court on Wednesday upheld the country’s Anti-Homosexuality Act. (Screenshot/YouTube Africa News)

KAMPALA, Uganda – The Ugandan Constitutional Court on Wednesday upheld the country’s Anti-Homosexuality Act.

“We decline to nullify the Anti-Homosexuality Act in its totality,” said Deputy Chief Justice Richard Buteera as he read the decision.

The lives of Ugandan LGBTQ individuals are now in further peril for the ruling of the court.

President Yoweri Museveni last May signed the law, which contains a death penalty provision for “aggravated homosexuality.”

The U.S. subsequently imposed visa restrictions on Ugandan officials and removed the country from a program that allows sub-Saharan African countries to trade duty-free with the U.S. The World Bank Group also announced the suspension of new loans to Uganda.

The court late last year heard the case against the Anti-Homosexuality Act.

A press release that a coalition of Ugandan LGBTQ advocacy groups issued on Wednesday notes the court said “some sections” of the law violate “the right to health, right to privacy and right to freedom of religion.” The decision, they noted, however, “failed to identify the numerous ways the law violates Ugandans’ substantive rights to equality, dignity, speech, association and health and freedom from discrimination.

“While we respect the court, we vehemently disagree with its findings and the basis on which it was reached,” said Nicholas Opiyo of Chapter Four Uganda. “We approached the court expecting it to apply the law in defense of human rights and not rely on public sentiments, and vague cultural values arguments.”

Human Rights Campaign President Kelley Robinson also condemned the decision.

“For the Constitutional Court of Uganda to uphold such a draconian law in any capacity is a horrific display of hatred that will mean further discrimination and physical harm for LGBTQ+ Ugandans,” she said.

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Eswatini police detain prominent human rights activist, LGBTQ+ ally

Tanele Maseko taken into custody on March 28 at border crossing



Tanele Maseko (Photo courtesy of the World Liberty Congress)

MBABANE, Eswatini — Eswatini police on March 28 detained a prominent human rights activist as she tried to return to the country.

Tanele Maseko, the deputy chairperson of the Southern Africa Human Rights Defenders Network, was taken into custody at the Ngwenya Border Post between Eswatini and South Africa. Reports indicate she was returning to Eswatini with her two minor children and an aide when authorities told her she was wanted.

SAHRDN said Maseko’s detention stemmed from her husband’s gruesome murder in January 2023.

Thulani Maseko was a high-profile lawyer, human rights activist and LGBTQ+ rights ally who was highly outspoken against the country’s governance.

“Southern Defenders has previously strongly condemned recent public statements from the government of Eswatini seemingly threatening Tanele Maseko for demanding justice and accountability for her husband’s murder,” said SAHRDN Chair Adriano Nuvunga. “Tanele Maseko is our deputy chairperson and human rights defender in her own right. As a normal human being, she, together with her children are victims of the traumatic events of Jan. 21, 2023, and need to know the truth for closure and healing.”

The Pan African Human Rights Defenders Network said Tanele Maseko’s detention is embarrassing and something not expected from a country that claims to protect all of its citizens.

“We are deeply concerned by the continued harassment of Mrs. Tanele Maseko by the authorities in Eswatini,” said Hassan Shire, the group’s chair. “The treatment that Mrs. Tanele Maseko and her children are receiving amounts to torture, inhumane and degrading treatment, that is totally banned under international law.” 

The Southern Africa Litigation Center in a statement said Maseko and her family are now the target of unsolicited harassment.

“Instead of anyone being held accountable for Thulani Maseko’s death, Mrs. Maseko and her young children have been the target of unsolicited harassment, persecution and intimidation by the authorities in Eswatini, including facing constant and cruel defamatory threats from government spokespersons,” said SALC in a statement. “Accountability and moral consequences must not remain elusive, hanging beyond the grasp of grieving hearts and demanding voices.” 

Vongai Chikwanda, Amnesty International’s deputy regional director for East and Southern Africa, said Eswatini authorities should stop weaponing the criminal justice system to target and harass Tanele Maseko.

“The judicial harassment of Tanele Maseko and her family is a clear violation of her human rights including the rights to liberty, freedom of expression and freedom of movement,” said Chikwanda. “Instead of using the criminal justice system to target, intimidate and harass Tanele Maseko, Eswatini authorities should focus on promptly, thoroughly, independently, impartially, transparently and effectively investigating Thulani Maseko’s murder and bringing to justice those suspected to be responsible.”

Lydia Dlamini, the acting commissioner of the Royal Eswatini Police Service, dismissed claims around Tanele Maseko’s arrest.

“In the wake of Thulani Maseko’s murder, concerted investigations ensued which at the early stage included obtaining a preliminary statement from his wife who was the only adult present at the time of the incident,” said Dlamini. 

“As normal practice and a follow-up to the preliminary statement, repeated attempts were made to meet with Mrs. Tanele Maseko to shed on various issues concerning the murder of her husband. Despite repeated requests, Mrs. Maseko was not even cooperative as even in instances where agreements had been reached on her availing herself,” added Dlamini. “In addition to not cooperating on this aspect of the investigation into her husband’s death, Mrs. Maseko also failed or refused to surrender herself and her late husband’s mobile phones, which the police had requested as these could possibly contain crucial information which could assist on this investigation.”

Dlamini said police at the border asked Tanele Maseko to go to police headquarters in Mbabane, the country’s capital, with her lawyers for questioning about her husband’s murder.

“To ensure compliance and to mitigate against the risk of evasion as had been previously been the case, she was requested to surrender her travel documents together with her mobile phone to which she agreed. Thereafter, she drove herself to the police headquarters in the company of her children,” said Dlamini. 

Dlamini said the interview was postponed until Tuesday.

“The engagement with Mrs. Maseko is crucial in obtaining vital information needed for a breakthrough in the investigation and therefore, must avail herself unreservedly,” said Dlamini. “No amount of distraction will sway the focus on the investigation.” 

Maseko is no longer detained, but is still under police surveillance until authorities complete their investigation.

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Ugandan lawmaker introduces anti-gay surrogacy bill

Sarah Opendi’s measure mirrors attempt in Kenya



Ugandan flag (Image by rarrarorro/Bigstock)

KAMPALA, Uganda — Uganda has joined Kenya in seeking to ban same-sex couples who want to use a surrogate or in vitro fertilization to become parents.

MP Sarah Opendi on March 5 introduced the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill 2023, which would limit access to these treatments to only people with infertility challenges. She notes there has been an increase in the number of Ugandans seeking to have children through human assisted reproductive technology over the years, but without a legal framework. 

“The increasing demand for the use of human assisted reproductive technology has been necessitated by the growing cases of primary and secondary infertility, and other health-related challenges among persons seeking to have children,” Opendi states in the bill. 

Legal gaps the law seeks to address include regulating access to the use of human assisted reproductive technology by a state’s medical body; designating medical units or facilities as fertility centers; setting up sperm, oocyte (a female egg) and embryo banks within fertility centers and a register of data collected from services rendered through the technology.  

The bill’s Clause 20 would block gay couples from having children via surrogacy and would give a registered medical practitioner the power to establish the infertility condition of an individual before accessing services. 

The medical professional would have to certify that the intending parent “suffers primary or secondary infertility” or “suffers health challenges which affect the ability to reproduce.” 

The bill would also bar same-sex couples from surrogacy services for parenthood, stating they apply to “a man and a woman” who jointly seek to use human assisted reproductive technology to obtain a child. The proposal would also apply to a man and a woman where “either the man or woman or both” suffer primary or secondary infertility or health-related challenges that affect the man or woman’s ability to reproduce.     

The proposed law, which a parliamentary health committee is considering for public input before its reintroduction in the House for debate, has been criticized by some Ugandan LGBTQ+ activists as “draconian.”

“The same sponsors of the anti-gay law are the same introducing this bill which is well influenced by American anti-gay and anti-gender groups,” Frank Mugisha told the Washington Blade.

His comments came three days after the U.S. denied Opendi a visa that would have allowed her to attend a Commission on the Status of Women at the U.N. meeting in New York.

Reports indicate the visa denial is because of anti-LGBTQ+ comments that include the castration of gay men that she made during the parliamentary debate on the Anti-Homosexuality Act. Mugisha applauded the U.S. decision, saying she should not be able to promote hate against LGBTQ+ people “anywhere else.”

“The bill is very draconian, has so many limitations for our men and families that do not conform to old draconian conservative ideologies,” said Mugisha in response to the surrogacy bill. “The bill would outlaw women who are not married from having IVF and we need to pay attention to this bull and stop it.” 

The Ugandan surrogacy bill limiting same-sex couples from parenthood adds to a list of recent anti-LGBTQ+ measures like Anti-Homosexuality Act that saw the country sanctioned.

The Court of Appeal on March 12 declared it is illegal for LGBTQ+ rights groups to register in Uganda. Parliament Speaker Anita Among, a strong anti-homosexuality crusader, during the parliamentary session two days after the ruling commended Chief Justice Alfonse Owiny and the Ugandan judiciary he leads for saving the country from “values that are alien and want to destroy our society.” 

Kenya’s proposed surrogacy law, dubbed the Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill 2022, is also before the parliamentary health committee. MP Millie Odhiambo last May reintroduced the bill, which would prohibit gay and lesbian couples from having children via surrogate.

The measure stalled in the Kenyan Senate in 2022. House rules rendered it “dead” when the parliamentary term ended because of that year’s general election. It could only be saved through a reintroduction in the new Parliament. 

The Kenyan surrogacy bill, just like the one that Opendi introduced, would only permit a man and a woman (intending parents) with certified infertility problems to have children via surrogate and IVF.

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Burundi’s president reiterates LGBTQ people should be stoned 

Ndayishimiye during the commemoration of the International Women’s Day reiterated his call for LGBTQ people to be stoned in a stadium



Burundian President Évariste Ndayishimiye (Screen capture via Gentil Gedeon Official YouTube)

GITEGA, Burundi – Burundian President Évariste Ndayishimiye on March 8 reiterated his call for LGBTQ people to be stoned in a stadium.

Ndayishimiye made the remark during the commemoration of the International Women’s Day in Gitega, the country’s political capital. He first called for the public stoning of LGBTQ people last December during a public event.

LGBTQ activists sharply criticized the comments and some international diplomats even threatened to cut economic ties with Burundi. Ndayishimiye, however, seems unmoved by this pushback and maintained that if it meant if his nation would cut economic ties with the developed countries on the basis of his anti-LGBTQ stance then so be it, reaffirming that nothing will change his stance.  

Jésus Dior Kant, a gay man and LGBTQ activist from Burundi, said the president’s remarks are tantamount to publicly calling for the lynching of gay people.

“This violent and anti-LGBT+ rhetoric endangers the lives of many individuals in Burundi and stains the nation’s commitment to human rights,” said Kant. “Such discourse not only incites homophobia and violence but also violates international human rights laws and norms that protect individuals regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity.”

Kant also said what Ndayishimiye said now poses a real and immediate threat for LGBTQ people in the country.

“The impact of this statement is not merely rhetorical, it poses a real and immediate threat to the safety and well-being of the LGBT+ community in Burundi,” said Kant. “It encourages hate crimes, promotes discrimination and undermines progress made towards equality and justice. This is not just a problem for the LGBT+ community but a stain on the moral fabric of our global society, reflecting on us all.”

Kant called for Ndayishimiye to immediately withdraw his remarks and commit to protecting the rights of LGBTQ people in the country.

“Your call to stone gay individuals constitutes a blatant violation of human rights and an incitement to violence and discrimination,” said Kant. “We implore you to take the necessary measures to withdraw your statement advocating violence against the LGBT+ community, commit to protecting LGBT+ individuals in Burundi by enforcing laws that guarantee rights and well-being and respecting international human rights conventions, ensuring that Burundi is a nation that respects and values every human life.” 

Clémentine de Montjoye, a researcher at Human Rights Watch’s Africa Division, said the anti-LGBTQ crackdown in Burundi could become worse, including continued political repression and restrictions on freedom of expression to maintain the governing party’s control. 

“This type of fearmongering is not new in Burundi, where sexual relations between people of the same sex have been illegal since former President Pierre Nkurunziza signed a new criminal code into law in 2009,” noted de Montjove. “The law was a fierce blow to Burundi’s LGBT people, who had begun to come out and organize, albeit in small numbers, to demand their rights be respected.”

De Montjove further noted the National Assembly’s human rights commission added the anti-homosexuality provision in the 2009 criminal code at the last minute, apparently under pressure from Nkurunziza, who made statements on television that described homosexuality as a curse.

“Ndayishimiye, who presents himself as a progressive, rights-respecting leader, should be working to reverse this trend rather than stoking more fear and hatred,” said de Montjoye.

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Ugandan appeals court upholds ruling that blocked LGBTQ+ group from registering

Decision ‘doesn’t faze us’



Ugandan flag (Image by rarrarorro/Bigstock)

KAMPALA, Uganda — A Ugandan appeals court on Tuesday upheld a ruling that prevented an LGBTQ+ rights group from legally registering in the country.

The Uganda Registration Services Bureau in 2012 refused to legally recognize Sexual Minorities Uganda. The Uganda High Court upheld the decision in 2018, and SMUG appealed it to the country’s Registrar Court of Appeal.

“The LGBTQ community views this ruling as a missed opportunity to address the suppression of their freedom of association, instead focusing on perceived societal norms,” said SMUG in a press release. “It underscores a recurring trend in Ugandan courts, wherein rights of LGBTQ persons are marginalized, further widening the gap between legal protections and lived realities and experiences.”

Katie Hultquist of Outright International in a post to her X account expressed her personal support for SMUG Executive Director Frank Mugisha, his organization and other activists in the country. Mugisha said SMUG is “fully committed to elevating this challenge to the next level.”  

“After thorough debriefing, we will communicate our next strategic steps,” said Mugisha. “This ruling doesn’t faze us.”

The appeals court issued its ruling less than a year after President Yoweri Museveni signed the country’s Anti-Homosexuality Act, which contains a death penalty provision for “aggravated homosexuality.”

The Constitutional Court in December heard arguments in a lawsuit that challenges the law. It is not clear when a ruling will be issued.

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Prominent Angolan activist found dead

Authorities say Carlos Fernandes showed signs he was strangled



Carlos Fernandes (Photo courtesy of USAID Administrator Samantha Power's X account)

LUANDA, Angola — Authorities in Angola on Feb. 26 found a prominent activist dead in his home.

Associação Íris Angola in a Facebook post wrote Carlos Fernandes, the group’s executive director, “was found lifeless in his residence” in Luanda, the country’s capital. Angolan media reports indicate authorities continue to investigate his death, but they suspect he was strangled.

His funeral took place on March 1. Activists throughout the country have organized candlelight vigils and other events to honor Fernandes.

“His departure leaves a huge void in our community and a deep mourning in our hearts,” said Associação Íris Angola.

Angolan lawmakers in 2020 decriminalized consensual same-sex sexual relations and banned violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation in the former Portuguese colony. Fernandes was among the activists who championed these advances.

The State Department’s 2022 human rights report notes violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity remains commonplace in Angola. Angolan media reports indicate Fernandes is the second LGBTQ+ person found dead with signs of strangulation in recent weeks.  

“Carlos Fernandes led the first LGBTQI+ group in Angola, and tirelessly advocated for human rights and ending the threat of HIV/AIDS,” said U.S. Agency for International Development Samantha Power in a March 6 post to her X account.

U.S. Ambassador to Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe Tulinabo Mushingi in a statement noted his embassy “was proud to partner with Mr. Fernandes over the past decade.”

“We are grateful for his important contributions to our programs supporting human rights, fighting against stigma and discrimination, expanding access to health and education resources for LGBTQI+ communities, combatting human trafficking and more,” said Mushingi. “In particular, his contributions to our PEPFAR (President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) program expanded protection and treatment for HIV/AIDS to previously unreached communities.”

PEPFAR echoed these sentiments, noting Fernandes’ “contributions expanded protection and treatment for HIV/AIDS to previously unreached communities.”

“Carlos Fernandes is remembered as a resolute, strong, welcoming person,” said Mushingi. “As a true pioneer in the fight against discrimination, he created a family among the LGBTQI+ community in Angola, and his legacy as an activist will be carried on by generations of LGBTQI+ Angolans.”  

“We trust that the Angolan authorities will conduct a thorough investigation to ensure that any parties responsible are held accountable,” he added.

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Ethiopia’s largest church condemns LGBTQ+ community

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is one of world’s religious dominations



Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (Photo by RudiErnst/Bigstock)

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — Ethiopia’s largest church has condemned the LGBTQ+ community’s existence.

According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which is one of the world’s oldest religious denominations, the LGBTQ+ community is synonymous with the West and not with Ethiopia or Africa. The church in a statement said the right to various gender identities, what it describes as gender conversion therapy and allowing same-sex relationships leads to complex religious, social and cultural problems.

“The Permanent Synod calls for the faith, culture and ethics that has been preserved with many sacrifices to continue to have its place of honor and by ensuring that sin and evilness is not exposed to this disgusting act,” reads the statement.

“Homosexuality is not at all equal to a normal natural phenomenon that can be expressed by gender rights and it is the spiritual mission of our church to oppose it knowing that this violates the religious, social and psychological assets of our country, the federal government should strongly oppose this,” it adds. “Actions that increase homosexuality, Transgender, bisexual sex and so on are all issues and practices that are not accepted in our country by religion, law, social values and ethical guidelines. So, the Permanent Synod calls for them to be clearly stated that we will not accept them in any official relations.”

The church in its statement “strongly warns those who promote homosexuality, spread and do hidden activities to refrain from their actions.” 

Activists condemned the statement.

“Maybe someday, homophobic individuals will understand that one’s sexual orientation can’t be prayed away,” said Mahdi Liima, founder of the Tigray Art Collective, an organization that works in the Tigray region and throughout Ethiopia. “Queer Ethiopians are present in all religions. Surprisingly, I have met many who are active members of their faith and embrace them as beautiful humans.”

Bahiru Shewaye, co-founder of House of Guramayle, said religious leaders have been focused on spreading public paranoia about queerness as a threatening factor for the nation.

“We call on all Ethiopians to really study the pattern here and wake up. The current fearmongering that is being galvanized by religious institutions and their affiliated death apparatus against Zega (an Amharic word that refers to LGBTQ+ people) or the queer community in Ethiopia is nothing but the usual destruction tactic,” said Shewaye.

The Inter-Religious Council of Ethiopia last month issued a scathing statement particularly against the Samoa Agreement, 20-year partnership agreement between some EU and African Union countries that seeks to strength socio-economic and political ties. Ethiopia is among the nations that have signed it.

According to the Inter-Religious Council of Ethiopia, the federal government should withdraw from the agreement because of terms and conditions that seek to uphold LGBTQ+ rights. 

Religious leaders in recent months have called upon the federal government to ensure it does not consider LGBTQ+ rights on the basis they are not African and counter with the country’s religious beliefs. LGBTQ+ Ethiopians have faced increased online attacks and at times even arbitrary arrests.

Consensual same-sex sexual relations remain criminalized in Ethiopia and are punishable by up to a year in prison. This sentence can reach more than 10 years.

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Ghanaian president delays decision on whether to sign anti-LGBTQ+ bill

Finance Ministry warns country could lose billions in aid



Ghanaian President Nana Akufo-Addo. (Screen capture via BBC News Africa YouTube)

ACCRA, Ghana — Ghanaian President Nana Akufo-Addo has said he will not sign a bill that would further criminalize LGBTQ+ people until the country’s Supreme Court rules on whether it is constitutional or not.

Media reports from the West African country on Tuesday note Akufo-Addo also said the measure has not reached his desk.

Lawmakers on Feb. 28 approved the Promotion of Proper Human Sexual Rights and Ghanaian Family Values Bill that would, among other things, criminalize allyship. Advocacy groups in Ghana and around the world, along with the State Department and U.S. Ambassador to Ghana Virginia Palmer have sharply criticized the measure.

The Ghanaian Finance Ministry on Monday said the country could lose billions of dollars in funding from the World Bank if Akufo-Addo signs the bill.

Ghana is among the dozens of countries in which consensual same-sex sexual relations remain criminalized. Discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity is also commonplace in the country as the Washington Blade has previously reported.

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Ghanaian MPs approve anti-LGBTQ+ bill

Measure would criminalize advocacy, allyship



Ghanaian flag (Public domain photo by Jorono from Pixabay)

ACCRA, Ghana — Ghanaian lawmakers on Wednesday approved a bill that would further criminalize LGBTQ+ people and make advocacy on their behalf illegal.

Advocacy groups and their supporters had urged MPs to oppose the Promotion of Proper Human Sexual Rights and Ghanaian Family Values Bill that would, among other things, criminalize allyship.

Consensual same-sex sexual relations remain criminalized in Ghana. Discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity is also commonplace in the country as the Washington Blade has previously reported.

“The Human Sexual rights and Ghanaian Family Values Bill, a private member’s bill passed by parliament, has not yet become a law in Ghana,” said UNAIDS Executive Director Winnie Byanyima in a press release. “If the bill does become a law, it will affect everyone.” 

Human Rights Campaign Vice President of Government Affairs David Stacy also criticized the bill’s passage.

“We are outraged to hear about the Ghanaian Parliament’s passage of the so-called ‘Promotion of Proper Human Sexual Rights and Ghanaian Family Values Act’ — a cruel bill that violates the fundamental rights of LGBTQI+ people and allies throughout Ghana,” he said. “Every single lawmaker who voted to pass this bill is wrongly using their power to strip away the basic humanity of the people they are supposed to represent.” 

Outright International Senior Director of Law, Policy and Research Neela Ghoshal said the bill “tramples human rights, undermines family values of acceptance and unity, and risks derailing economic development and eroding democratic gains.” 

“Banning the very existence of queer people and their allies is unprecedented,” she said. “The hostility this bill displays toward LGBTQ Ghanaians will put lives and livelihoods at risk.”

State Department spokesperson Matt Miller in a statement also criticized the bill’s passage, saying it would “undermine Ghana’s valuable public health, media and civic spaces and economy.”

The bill now goes to President Nana Akufo-Addo for his signature.

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