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Larry Kramer dies at 84

‘Anger is a wonderful motivator for me!’

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Larry Kramer, gay news, Washington Blade

Larry Kramer “First there were a dozen, then two dozen, suddenly 100 and then too, too many.” — an email about the founding of Gay Men’s Health Crisis to Troy Masters.. (Photo by Jean Carlomusto; courtesy Farrar Straus Giroux)

Larry Kramer died Wednesday at 84 years old during a pandemic that today reached a milestone 100,000 death count in the US. The cause was neither the AIDS crisis he so passionately fought nor the Covid-19 crisis he watched aghast as it unfolded. Kramer died of pneumonia, according to his husband David Webster.

Kramer was often soft-spoken, almost shy, and, at least the first time you met him, was unfailingly polite. But when he spoke in public his voice became a Moses-like lightning rod, parting the waters — some would say the nation — demanding respect and dignity for the lives of a people that were being decimated by a then hidden plague, AIDS. He turned his audience into an army that was unafraid to confront the evils of prejudice, hatred and ignorance. They created ACT UP.


In March 1983, Kramer wrote in his famous essay “1,112 and counting,” published in the Native, then a New York City gay publication: “If this article doesn’t scare the shit out of you, we’re in real trouble. If this article doesn’t rouse you to anger, fury, rage, and action, gay men may have no future on this earth. Our continued existence depends on just how angry you can get.”

That essay was a call to arms. “Larry was asked to speak at the LGBT Community Center in a writers speaking series after,” according to ACT UP founding member Eric Sawyer. “Nora Ephron cancelled with the flu.”

Kramer called a number of friends and asked them to come to the speech. He planned to call for the formation of a civil disobedience group to protest governmental, drug company and society’s refusal to take appropriate action to respond to the needs of people living with AIDS or to find a cure for the disease, which was killing gay men at an exponentially growing rate.

“Larry asked me to bring a bunch of my pretty boy Fire Island friends and to stand up and volunteer to help with forming the protest group as boy bait to encourage others to join,” Sawyer said.

At one point in the speech, Kramer asked half of the room to stand up. He then said “All of you standing will be dead within 12 months unless we get off our asses and get into the streets to demand a major research project to find a cure for AIDS.”

The actor Martin Sheen, a friend of Kramer’s, also spoke, imploring the room that government inaction was not acceptable and that the community must demand a cure.

The first demonstration was planned in front of Trinity Church at the base of Wall Street where a handful of people demanded drug companies and the government begin, according to Sawyer, “an emergency project to cure AIDS.”

The event amassed massive media coverage: having a group of patients demanding a cure from the government was unheard of at the time.

Larry Kramer portrait by Tracey Litt.

Kramer was a noted author and playwright who began his career at Columbia Pictures and United Artists.

His screenplay for the 1969 film “Women in Love” (1969) earned an Academy Award nomination. Among his many accomplishments and awards, he was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for his play “The Destiny of Me” (1992), and a two-time recipient of the Obie Award.

Even before AIDS, Kramer was known as a critic of his own community; his novel “Faggots” (1978) depicted gay male relationships of the 1970s as hedonistic, destructive and unaware.

He co-founded the Gay Men’s Health Crisis (GMHC), which has become the world’s largest private organization assisting people living with AIDS. But Kramer felt the agency had frozen and become reactive.

His highly acclaimed 1985 play “The Normal Heart,” produced at Joseph Papp’s Public Theater reflected on the failings of a bureaucratic approach to combating an epidemic and honed his belief in the power of collective political provocation.

He was known for his rage and brazen behavior and New York City Mayor Ed Koch was among his favorite targets for his disregard of the emerging AIDS crisis.

Kramer and Koch both lived in the same building, One Fifth Avenue but the activist refused to speak to the Mayor, even when the Mayor made nice and attempted to pet his dog. “I said, ‘Molly, you can’t talk to him. That is the man who killed all of Daddy’s friends,” Kramer told the New Yorker in 2002.

Kramer’s 2015 novel “The American People, Vol. 1: Search for My Heart,” was a behemoth —nearly 800 pages that tells variously of prehistoric monkeys, the Puritans, the American Revolution, the Civil War and also the abundant — in Kramer’s vision — homosexual proclivities of the U.S. Founding Fathers with a dizzying cast that includes Washington, Hamilton, Lincoln and even John Wilkes Booth.

Kramer, a D.C. native, is widely known for his groundbreaking and searing play “The Normal Heart,” adapted into an HBO Emmy-winning film, and other works. He lived in New York’s Greenwich Village with his husband, David Webster (they wed in 2013) and their Cairn Terrier, Charlie, a rescue dog Kramer, a dog person, said is “very good natured.”

Kramer spoke to the Blade in 2015 about his husband.

“I first started dating David in the mid-‘60s. We dated for many years but he didn’t want to be pinned down. We finally got together permanently in 1995 or so and got married just a year or so ago. I promptly got very sick and spent almost a year in and out of hospitals. He saved my life several times when doctors were not helping; he found the right ones. It is certainly not the marriage one wanted to have, lover and caregiver. His own career as an architect has suffered as he worries for me. We have both certainly been put to the test and it has brought us even closer together.”

Kramer could be cantankerous to say the least. Of that reputation, he told the Blade, “I am not bitter. I am angry. Anger is a wonderful motivator for me!”

Some reactions are being posted as they come in:

Ann Northrop, ACT UP member and media advisor and co-host of GAY USA with Andy Humm:
“I truly loved Larry, even when I disagreed with him. He was a fully genuine human being who never hesitated to speak what he saw as the truth. Definitely not a diplomat. But it was his insistence on pushing and prodding that was the greatest evidence of how much he loved gay people. He wouldn’t let us settle for any mistreatment or second-class status. He always said we were the best and he wanted us to feel that level of self-respect.”

Torie Osborn, now Senior Strategist for Los Angeles County Supervisor Sheila Kuehl:
During the height of the AIDS epidemic, she was the executive director of the Los Angeles Gay & Lesbian Community Services Center. In 1993, during the March on Washington, Osborn was the executive director of the National Gay & Lesbian Task Force in Washington DC.

“I had a few dinners with Larry in NYC, several phone chats, more than a few arguments. He attended and helped host my NYC fundraiser for my (valiant, if failed) 2012 Assembly race. Most notably, I arranged secretly for some lesbian friends to escort him up on stage totally against the will of ‘the committee’ at the 1993 March on DC rally. We put him up on stage, right ahead of my own speech. Then we formed a phalanx around him while he spoke (trashing a bit too harshly the Clinton administration on AIDS). I was super proud of that.

“Larry was a prophet, as well as an artist. I remember where I was when I read his essay in Frontiers in 1983: ‘A.I.D.S. 1,112 and still counting….’ He jolted us all awake and by founding GMHC and ACT UP, he showed us the way to both fighting back against the genocidal Republicans and caring for our own. Larry was one of the great ones — a prophet and artist for the ages. And a giant pain in the ass.”

Phill Wilson is a longtime HIV/AIDS advocate and founder and former executive director of the Black AIDS Institute:

“There is so much one can say about Larry. Like most of us, he was a very complicated person. There’s no doubt, I don’t think that it’s debatable that maybe his largest contribution to both the LGBT and the HIV/AIDS community is that he taught us both how to be angry, how to use that anger, and to be comfortable with being angry. It was OK to be angry.

That was an important lesson to learn. Prior to Larry elevating the art of anger, if you will, many of us were stuck in that ‘best little boy’ or ‘best little girl’ mode and feeling that the best way to maneuver the world was to NOT to be seen because to be seen was to put yourself at risk and at danger. Larry basically led the way for us to maneuver in the world in a different way.

The other thing that for me is important in the lesson of Larry Kramer is an appreciation of the complexity because while Larry was very powerful and very passionate and his contribution was immense, he had blind spots. And he had a huge blind spot when it came to race, and when it came to women and when it came to poor people.

I remember a phone conversation (during a radio interview) that I had with him right around the time when the protease inhibitors came out. And Larry was talking about his experience taking his first medication in Barbra Streisand’s bathroom while I, on the other hand, am watching the lines and lines and lines of black and brown and young people at the food banks in LA. I was trying to make the case that while we certainly were happy about the protease inhibitors, but a few pills that work for some people some of the time does not a cure make.

I don’t think that Larry had an appreciation for the intersectionality of HIV and AIDS. He clearly understood the relationship between homophobia and HIV and AIDS. He got that. It was not evident to me that he always understood the relationship between racism and misogyny and classism and HIV and AIDS.”

Robin Tyler, Activist and organizer of the 1983 March on Washington
When the 1993 March on Washington happened, the ‘March committee’ decided they did not want Larry Kramer to speak. I was producing the main stage, and during the March, Torie Osborn came up to me (I had a lot of security on stage but because she was an ex, got through,) ‘Act Up’ was going to attack if I didn’t let him on stage.

I looked at the crowd of a million.  I did not see a group poised to attack.  But I had been angry he wasn’t invited to speak.  So I made a split second decision, and Torie introduced him.  He was fabulous!

Needless to say, the co-chairs were angry with me. (one in particular) I got in a lot of trouble.  But then again, so did Larry.

I am honored to have known him and to have introduced him at that March.  He was one of the greatest gay activist who ever lived, a giant of a man!

David France, Academy Award nominated director of “How to Survive a Plague”:
Larry was always complaining that the gays had no Martin Luther King, which was silly, of course, because he was our King. More imperfect, more intemperate by far, certainly more polarizing, but no less impactful. Everything he did seemed designed to fail, yet somehow he gathered up a lackluster movement and a dysfunctional community and shouted and insulted us forward. In this indirect way, he launched a powerful and transformative AIDS movement, which remained his lifelong focus, but he also managed to fuel the most rapid social transformation in history. America owes Larry a postage stamp at the very least, and a long weekend for sure.

Michael Weinstein, co-founder of AIDS Healthcare Foundation who attended ACT UP/LA’s first meeting and collaborated closely with ACT UP/LA leader Mark Kostopoulos:

“Larry Kramer was a giant in our movement. He was the grandfather of AIDS activism. All of us learned from him even when we didn’t always agree. He was there at the founding of institutions such as GMHC and Housing Works. And, his cultural contributions, particularly Normal Heart, spoke eloquently to not only our minds but our hearts. Larry, you will be sorely missed.”

David Mixner, longtime politico, author and theatre soloist Performer:
“My friend Larry Kramer never ever negotiated our personal freedom or health to make others comfortable.   Being liked or personal power just wasn’t part of his strategy.”

Lambda Legal’s Kevin Jennings, in a statement:
“Lambda Legal –its staff and community of advocates for LGBT rights and everyone living with HIV– deeply mourn the passing of Larry Kramer, who fought tirelessly throughout his life to focus resources on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to eradicate the stigma of living with HIV, changing forever the landscape of activism, the LGBT civil rights movement, and the lives of people living with HIV worldwide. Larry Kramer has been an endless source of inspiration to our lawyers and our work to help end the HIV epidemic. We owe Larry Kramer an immeasurable debt of gratitude for teaching us how to stand up and fight back, how to survive a plague and how to channel our anger into direct action for social change.

“Larry Kramer founded and helped lead Gay Men’s Health Crisis (GMHC), an organization critical to providing life-saving services to people with AIDS at a time when our government had turned its back on the dying.   Larry then turned his anger into helping create ACT UP (AIDS Coalition To Unleash Power), the groundbreaking AIDS activist group that used creative, nonviolent civil disobedience to reshape the dynamics of the epidemic itself.

“We are facing again a federal government that does not care about LGBT people, , people living with HIV or communities of color. Kramer’s passing should serve as a wake-up call and a reminder that righteous anger is an appropriate response when the powers that be fail in their duty to serve all citizens equally and fairly, and we should continue to channel that energy into action until we have won the fight for fully equitable and fair treatment in law, medicine, and society.”

(In 2017, Lambda Legal honored Larry Kramer with the Kevin M. Cathcart Legacy Award at our annual Liberty Awards.  To watch a video of Mr. Kramer’s acceptance speech, click here.)

Jay Blotcher, ACT UP and AmFAR Publicist:
I first met Larry Kramer in the spring of 1983. I was associate producer of a lesbian and gay TV show called “Our Time,” co-produced and co-hosted by veteran activist Vito Russo.

The epidemic was just beginning to devastate New York City’s gay community, so Vito planned an hour program on the epidemic. He invited his longtime friend Larry, a co-founder of GMHC,  to be one of the guests. There was one major problem: Larry had a fear of heights — and our studios were on the 25th floor of the Municipal Building.

So, the date of the shoot, Vito had me and other staff members meet Larry in the lobby. Our quest: to calm the man on the elevator ride up and especially to distract him so he didn’t look out any windows en route to the studio. The Larry I got to meet that day was a gentle and nervous man with a severe case of acrophobia. Four years later, when I joined ACT UP, I got to know his infamously fiery, relentless, and pugnacious side.

But Larry never turned that side on me. I think I got a pass because I worked for his cherished friend Vito all those years before.

Sarah Schulman, ACT UP Member, Author and Filmmaker
He was one of the few privileged people who used his access to yell at those in power and I wish more like him would do the same today. He came from a culture of Dissent, not cooperation.

Peter Staley, founding member ACT UP and Treatment Activist Group:
There were two Larry’s back then. The first deserves every statute that gets built in his honor – the Larry who used anger to launch the two main branches of our community’s AIDS response, the beautiful self-care response that Gay Men’s Health Crisis valiantly built while the world looked away, and the activist response that forced that same world to look, and respond.

The second Larry was the moralist whose finger-wagging, like all finger-wagging, brought adulation from other moralists, but had no effect on the rest of us. AIDS was not a price we paid for finally building communities of freedom on both coasts. There have been only two sexually transmitted pathogens in all of human history that have killed in the millions – syphilis and HIV – and they hit us 500 years apart. AIDS was not an inevitable result of gay life in the 1970s. As an epidemiological event, it was simply bad luck.

To this day, gay men carry the added burden of a society that sexually shames us. Larry played a part in this. To be fair, most of this critique is inside baseball. To the larger world, Larry was our community’s greatest advocate. He constantly told straight America that his gay brothers and sisters were the most beautiful people on earth. He pushed back against the hate directed at us like no advocate before him. Larry loved gay people, and spent his entire life fighting for us.

I just got off the phone with Tony Fauci. I broke the news to him via text earlier today. We’re both surprised how hard this is hitting. We both cried on the call.

Larry Kramer (Photo by Bob Krasner)

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U.S. Federal Courts

Lawsuits against Ohio State over sexual predator sports doctor tossed

“The judge just threw 300 survivors in a trash can,” Steve Snyder-Hill said then adding, “a trash can with an OSU logo on it”

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Screenshot via WBNS-TV, CBS News 10, Columbus, Ohio

COLUMBUS, Oh. – A Federal judge Wednesday dismissed hundreds of pending lawsuits against Ohio State University, (OSU) in cases related to a former OSU sports team doctor Richard Strauss, who had sexually molested young male athletes and other students for twenty years.

In his ruling, U.S. District Judge Michael H. Watson of the Southern District of Ohio wrote;

It is beyond dispute that Plaintiffs, as well as hundreds of other former students, suffered unspeakable sexual abuse by Strauss. It is also true that many Plaintiffs and other students complained of Strauss’s abuse over the years and yet medical doctors, athletic directors, head and assistant coaches, athletic trainers, and program directors failed to protect these victims from Strauss’s predation.”

According to Judge Watson he dismissed the cases because the statute of limitations for criminal rape cases in Ohio is 20 years to report for criminal prosecution or otherwise have legal proceedings initiated.

“If there is a viable path forward for Plaintiffs on their claim against Ohio State, it starts with the legislature rather than the judiciary,” Watson wrote.

Taking aim at Ohio lawmakers Watson noted; ““At all times since the filing of these cases, the Ohio legislature, has the power, but not the will, to change the statute of limitations.” The legislature can provide a “path forward for Plaintiffs on their claim against Ohio State.”

Strauss preyed on hundreds of young men from the time of his employment at OSU in 1978 until he retired in 1998, and allegations about his misconduct didn’t become public until an ex-wrestler named Mike DiSabato spoke out in 2018, years after Strauss’ death by suicide in 2005.

The former athletes were represented by several legal teams including Washington D.C./Oakland, California-based legal advocacy group Public Justice.

Today’s ruling is not only deeply disappointing,” the legal team said in reaction to the ruling today, “but also sends a disturbing message that the very real challenges sexual abuse survivors often face in understanding what has happened to them – and who enabled the abuse they experienced – is irrelevant when they ultimately ask for the court’s help in holding abusive people and institutions accountable.

OSU spent decades denying, hiding, and evading the truth about its role in concealing the abuse that happened on its watch. Today’s ruling punishes survivors already traumatized by the university’s callous campaign of deception. The court’s decision cannot, and must not, be the final word in the survivors’ journey towards justice.”

The case against OSU brought widespread attention as one of the cases involved Strauss victim Steve Snyder-Hill, a a prominent LGBTQ activist and a U.S. Army veteran. Upon hearing of Watson’s ruling, a palpably angered Snyder-Hill told several media outlets; “The judge just threw 300 survivors in a trash can,” he said adding, “a trash can with an OSU logo on it.”

Steve Snyder-Hill (Screen shot via WCMH-TV, NBC 4 Columbus, Ohio)

NBC News had reported on the case and profiled Snyder-Hill in 2019:

[…] In the years following the alleged assault, Snyder-Hill would go on to serve in the Iraq War, publicly fight against the military’s “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy and become an outspoken advocate for same-sex marriage. He and his husband, Josh, married in 2011 in Washington, D.C., in front of the tombstone of Leonard Matlovich, a Vietnam War veteran who had been discharged by the Air Force for being gay. The couple were involved in a lawsuit filed by Service Members Legal Defense Network that challenged the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which prevented the military from giving benefits to legally married same-sex couples, and successfully fought in court to have their surnames combined in Ohio.

Snyder-Hill was unexpectedly thrust into the media spotlight in 2011 after submitting a question during the Republican presidential debate about whether the candidates would reverse the 2011 repeal of “don’t ask, don’t tell.” Some members of the audience booed Snyder-Hill, who submitted his question by video from his military base in Iraq. That an active-duty soldier in uniform would be booed during a presidential debate shocked and angered many Americans during a time when acceptance for same-sex marriage was mounting. […]

The publicity over the OSU cases also ensnared conservative right-wing Rep. Jim Jordan (R-Ohio), renewing questions over his failure to stop Strauss from molesting former wrestlers Jordan had coached more than two decades ago at OSU. Jordan was accused of that neglect in 2018 by those former wrestlers.

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National

2.3 million Latinx LGBTQ adults live in the US

More than one-third are living in low-income households

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Graphic via Fenway Health LATINX Center, Boston, Massachusetts

LOS ANGELES – A new study by the Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law finds that an estimated 2.3 million adults in the U.S. identify as Hispanic or Latino/a and LGBTQ.

Researchers found that Latinx LGBTQ people fare worse than their non-LGBTQ counterparts on some measures of economic and social vulnerability, including unemployment and food insecurity. In addition, Latinx LGBTQ adults face disparities in mental and physical health such as depression, asthma, and chronic health conditions compared to non-LGBTQ adults.

However, similarities were found between the two groups, including household annual income and experiences of victimization and discrimination.

This study provides information on the well-being of Latinx adults in the U.S., as well as additional analyses of Latinx LGBTQ subgroups, such as Mexican, Central American, and South American LGBTQ people in California.

“In terms of economic security, we see both similarities and differences between Latinx LGBTQ and non-LGBTq adults,” said lead author Bianca D.M. Wilson, Senior Scholar of Public Policy at the Williams Institute. “The fact that Latinx LGBT adults tend to be younger may contribute to  disparities in employment and food insecurity, while U.S. citizenship—which many Latinx LGBTQ adults in California have—may help close the poverty gap.”

KEY FINDINGS

Demographic Characteristics

  • There are an estimated 2.3 million Latinx LGBTQ adults in the US.
  • 65% of Latinx LGBTQ adults are under age 35, compared to 45% of non-LGBT adults.
  • Just over half (52%) of LGBTQ Latinx adults are women, and 48% are men. 
  • Fewer Latinx LGBTQ adults (44%) than non-LGBTQ adults (57%) are raising children.

Economic Characteristics

  • Latinx LGBTQ adults are more likely to be unemployed (10% vs. 8%) and to experience food insecurity (32% vs. 25%) than Latinx non-LGBT adults.
  • 37% of Latinx LGBTQ adults and 39% of non-LGBTQ adults live with a household income below $24,000 per year.
  • Latinx LGBTQ adults are less likely to live in low-income households than non-LGBTQ adults, however, the rates of poverty are high for both groups: 60% of Latinx LGBTQ adults live below 200% of the federal poverty level, compared to 63% of non-LGBTQ Latinx adults.

Mental and Physical Health

  • Nearly one-third (30%) of Latinx LGBTQ adults have been diagnosed with depression, compared to 16% of Latinx non-LGBTQ adults.
  • Latinx LGBTQ women have the highest rates of depression (35%) compared with non-LGBTQ women (20%) and both groups of men.
  • Latinx LGBTQ adults (12%) are more likely to have Medicaid as their primary insurance compared to Latinx non-LGBTQ adults (9%).

Discrimination and Stress

  • 17% of Latinx LGBTQ adults disagreed with the statement “You always feel safe and secure” compared to 11% of non-LGBTQ adults.
  • 42% of Latinx LGBTQ adults reported experiencing physical assault and threats, and 69% reported experiencing verbal assault or abuse at some point in their lives.

Social Support

  • The majority (64%) of Latinx LGB adults and 40% of Latinx transgender adults reported feeling connected to the LGBT community.
  • Less than half (43%) of Latinx LGBTQ adults reported feeling connected to the Latinx community.

This study is part of the Williams Institute’s LGBTQ Well-Being at the Intersection of Race series, which examines demographic characteristics and key indicators of well-being, including mental health, physical health, economic health, and social and cultural experiences, of different racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. The series also includes analyses by region.

Read the report

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Congress

Tyler Clementi Higher Education Anti-Harassment legislation reintroduced

The legislation has failed to garner enough congressional support for passage beginning with its initial introduction in 2011

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Photo courtesy of the Tyler Clementi Foundation

WASHINGTON – Democratic U.S. Senators Patty Murray of Washington and Tammy Baldwin of Wisconsin, along with Democratic U.S. House Representative Mark Pocan, also from Wisconsin, reintroduced the Tyler Clementi Higher Education Anti-Harassment Act Wednesday.

If enacted, the legislation would require colleges and universities that receive federal student aid to have in place a policy that prohibits harassment of students based on their actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, sex, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity.

Schools would have to distribute that policy to all students, along with information about the procedure to follow should an incident of harassment occur, and notify students of counseling, mental health, and other services available to victims or perpetrators of harassment.

The legislation would also require schools to recognize cyber-bullying as a form of harassment, and would create a new grant program at the U.S. Department of Education to help colleges and universities establish programs to prevent harassment of students.

“No student should live in fear of being who they are at school,” Baldwin said in a statement. “By reintroducing this legislation, we are taking a strong step forward in not only preventing harassment on campus, but also making sure our students have the freedom to learn and succeed in safe and healthy environments. Everyone at our colleges and universities deserves to pursue their dreams free of harassment and bullying.”

The lawmakers action was to mark eleventh anniversary of 18-year-old Tyler Clementi’s death, a suicide, after he lept from George Washington Bridge which connects North New Jersey to New York City on September 22, 2010. 

The Rutgers University freshman jumped to his death just days after his college roommate broadcast live images on the internet of him having a sexual encounter with another man. Fellow students Dharun Ravi, who was Clementi’s roommate, and Molly Wei were later charged. Wei struck a plea deal with prosecutors and a New Jersey Superior Court judge sentenced Ravi to 30 days in prison and three years probation for his actions.

The proposed law has failed to garner enough congressional support for passage over the past decade in beginning with its initial introduction in the 112th Congress in 2011. 

During a dedication ceremony on Monday February 4, 2013 of the Tyler Clementi Center at Rutgers University in New Jersey, U.S. Rep. Rush Holt, (D-N.J.) announced that he and U.S. Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-N.J.) had reintroduced the legislation in Congress.

The legislation failed to get the required support for passage and it again languished.

Last year in the 116th Congress, it was introduced again by Pocan in the House and Murray and Baldwin in the Senate in May 2019.

“Today we honor the life of Tyler Clementi by reintroducing this critical legislation. No one should be bullied because of who they are or who they love,” Pocan said in a statement. “This bill will help ensure that students can learn in peace and not have to worry about living in fear or humiliation for being themselves.”

Tyler’s parents founded a non-profit organization in their son’s name committed to end online and offline bullying, harassment, and humiliation.

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